Mmmmmmelons…

Sunday, February 18th: A glittery night of dance

And so many other smile-makers, like hanging with one of my soul sisters, making new friends and teaching two yoga classes that felt incredibly bright.  But I’ve committed to picking *one* thing to be grateful for, officially, and today is about riding that sweet sonic groove.  No inhibitions, no pretensions, just pure connection through music (I’m tempting to go on about Nada Yoga here, but will save that for another post!).  Mmmm hmm, did that feel good!

I would believe only in a God that knows how to Dance.
Friedrich Nietzsche

Monday: Naughty Fun
Bloody Marys with a lot more spike than blood, and a neighborhood pool hall full of surprises.  The table was a wee bit pricey but the drinks are half the usual hot spot prices, and the wait staff do not hold back on the friendly.  If you’re in the Slope …
Tuesday: Cantaloupe!
So delicious.  So good for you.
The World's Healthiest Foods 

Cantaloupe

What’s New and Beneficial About Cantaloupe

  • Because the flesh of the cantaloupe is often pastel-like in color (compared to the more vibrant color of fruits like oranges), we sometimes forget how important cantaloupe can be as a fruit source of vitamin A (in the form of carotenoids). Researchers have recently measured the carotenoid contents of six different California-grown cantaloupe hybrids and discovered that their beta-carotene content can reach levels as high as 3,138 micrograms (per 100 grams of fresh weight). That’s about 30 times higher than the beta-carotene content of fresh oranges. Although this nutrient richness of cantaloupe still does not place it in the beta-carotene range for fresh carrots here (about 8,300 micrograms), it’s still an aspect of this delicious fruit that is all-too-frequently overlooked.
  • At first, we were disappointed in the outcome of a recent French study that put cantaloupe at the very bottom of the fruits list in terms of its polyphenol content. In this French study, fruits like strawberries, lychees, and grapes came out far better in their concentration of antioxidant polyphenols than cantaloupe, and no fruit scored lower in its concentration of polyphenols. But then we read about the total amount of polyphenols that cantaloupe contributed to the average daily diet. When looked at in this practical context, cantaloupe ranked higher than many other commonly eaten fruits, including kiwi, grapefruit, and clementines. It also ranked higher than watermelon and pineapple. Obviously, the higher volume of cantaloupe consumed helped to offset its lower polyphenol concentration. This practical principle is important to remember. A health-supportive, whole food like fresh cantaloupe may show up as being lower in its concentration of certain nutrients (including total polyphenols), but because we often eat it in serving sizes that are relatively large, we often get substantial nutrient benefits, even in the case of nutrients found in lower concentrations.
  • Intake of cantaloupe has recently been found to lower risk of metabolic syndrome. In a study involving hundreds of women living and teaching in Tehran, Iran, the lowest risk of metabolic syndrome was found to occur in women who ate the greatest amount of fruit. (In this study, the “greatest amount” meant a minimum of 12 ounces per day.) Five fruits contributed most to total fruit intake: apples, grapes, cantaloupe, watermelon, and bananas. Women who consumed the largest amounts of these fruits were also determined to have the healthiest levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in their bloodstream. CRP is an indicator very commonly used to assess levels of inflammation, and it’s very likely that the anti-inflammatory phytonutrients in cantaloupe and other fruits contributed not only to these participants’ healthy levels of CRP but also to their decreased risk of metabolic syndrome.
Nutrients in
Cantaloupe
1.00 cup (160.00 grams)
Nutrient%Daily Value

vitamin A108.2%

vitamin C97.8%

potassium12.2%

folate8.4%

vitamin B66%

vitamin B35.8%

fiber5.3%

vitamin K5%

magnesium4.8%

vitamin B14.6%

Calories (54)3%

Health Benefits

Nutrient Diversity

We seldom think about fruits as providing a broad spectrum of nutrients. In addition, when this food group gets placed in the nutritional spotlight, it’s usually berries that get first mention among the nutritional standouts. Yet judging from its nutrient profile, cantaloupe is a fruit that should get us thinking differently about fruit and nourishment. This member of the melon family receives 10 rankings in our food rating system—the same number as raspberries, 1 more than strawberries, and 6 more than blueberries. Cantaloupe scores an “excellent” for both vitamin C and vitamin A (in the form of carotenoids). It scores “very good” for potassium, and “good” for a host of B vitamins (B1, B3, B6, and folate) as well as vitamin K, magnesium, and fiber. When the edible seeds of the cantaloupe are eaten, this melon also provides a measurable about of omega-3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid.

Cantaloupe contains more beta-carotene than alpha-carotene. But because it contains both of these carotenoids, it also contains both of their derivatives, including lutein in the case of alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin in the case of beta-carotene. These carotenoid phytonutrients are joined by the flavonoid luteolin, antioxidant organic acids including ferulic and caffeic acid, and anti-inflammatory cucurbitacins, including cucurbitacin B and cucurbitacin E. The nutrient diversity of cantaloupe is perhaps its most overlooked health benefit!

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Support

As evidenced by the preceding list of phytonutrients, cantaloupe’s nutritional strong suit involves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients. Even while it is relatively low in concentration of certain nutrients (like total polyphenols) in comparison to other fruits, cantaloupe still provides us with important amounts because we tend to eat it in larger serving sizes than other fruits.

Many researchers understand metabolic syndrome—a group of health problems that includes high blood fats, high blood sugars, high blood pressure, and too much body fat—to be caused by problems in lifestyle that result in chronic underlying levels of unwanted inflammation and oxidative stress throughout the body. In this context, it’s not surprising to see decreased risk of metabolic syndrome in individuals with especially high intake of cantaloupe (along with other fruits), since cantaloupe provides a wide range of antioxidants that help prevent oxidative stress and a wide range of anti-inflammatory phytonutrients that help prevent excessive inflammation. It’s also not surprising to see lower levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the bloodstream of persons who have particularly high intake of cantaloupe, since CRP is a marker widely used to assess levels of inflammation in the body. One final important note: in the study that documented these benefits of cantaloupe for prevention of metabolic syndrome, “high” intake meant at least 12 ounces of total fruit per day. Since cantaloupe was one of five fruits making a special contribution to these 12 ounces, we assume that few of the study participants would go one whole week without consuming cantaloupe. That approach might help all of us increase our protection from unwanted inflammation and oxidative stress.

Other Health Benefits

Unfortunately, most of the other studies that we have seen on the health benefits of cantaloupe are studies conducted on animals rather than humans. This aspect of the research limits our certainty about the health benefits for humans. However, especially promising in the animal research has been studies related to diabetes. Researchers have shown that intake of cantaloupe phytonutrients can improve insulin and blood sugar metabolism. In addition, intake of cantaloupe extracts has been show to reduce oxidative stress in the kidneys of animals with diabetes, and to improve insulin resistance in diabetic animals.

Given the benefits of cantaloupe for prevention of metabolic syndrome, we would expect to see future studies showing clear health benefits for this melon in the area of heart disease, including atherosclerosis. Many heart-related problems start out with chronic unwanted inflammation and chronic oxidative stress. Hopefully, it won’t be long before we have large-scale human studies documenting benefits in this important area.

Description

The fruit widely known as “cantaloupe” throughout the U.S. is actually muskmelon. When we purchase “cantaloupe” in a U.S. grocery store, what we’re used to seeing is an outer surface that consists of “netting”—an orderly mosaic pattern – that sits atop and covers the outermost skin (rind). We may or may not also see “ribbing” on the cantaloupe (“ribbing” in the sense of lines running from one end of the cantaloupe to the other, like the seams on a basketball). But if we do see ribbing, it is not usually very heavy or very deep., Melons with a very developed and orderly netting and only mild-to-moderate ribbing are not true cantaloupes but rather muskmelons (Cucumis melo var reticulatus).

Cantaloupes (Cucumis melo var cantalupensis) typically lack an extensive, orderly netting and they have ribs (also called “sutures”) that are much heavier and more deeply grooved. In addition, true cantaloupes are grown almost exclusively in other parts of the world (and especially in the Mediterranean region). In fact, the name “cantaloupe” actually comes from the name of a town in Italy near Rome called Cantaloupo in Sabina, where seeds were brought from Armenia and planted in the Papal gardens during the 1400-1500’s.) Despite this misnaming of “cantaloupes” in the U.S. marketplace however, from hereon we’re going to stick with this common U.S. practice and refer to muskmelons as cantaloupes.

Cantaloupes are members of the cucurbit family of plants (Cucurbitaceae) that also includes cucumbers, pumpkins, squashes, gourds, and a long list of melons. Melons in this same plant family with cantaloupe include Watermelon and honeydew melon, along with crenshaw, casaba, Persian, and canary melon. Because many members of the cucurbit plant family can easily cross-pollinate, there are also many different hybrid melons in the marketplace that combine features of true cantaloupe with features of these other melons.

The ripe flesh of a cantaloupe can vary in color depending on the hybrid. “Jenny Linds” are one example of a green-fleshed hybrid; “Athena” and “Ambrosia” hybrids have salmon-colored flesh; and the flesh of the Gurney’s (TM) hybrids typically has a rich orange color. Cantaloupes have a hollow cavity in their center that is filled with edible seeds. In some parts of the world, cantaloupes are known as “rockmelons.”

If you read about cantaloupe across the Internet, you may find a good bit of inconsistency involving the language used to describe the parts of this fruit. Some websites use the words “top” and “bottom” when describing cantaloupes. Other websites use “stem end” and “blossom end.” Still others use “vine end” and “end opposite the vine end.” As such, we wanted to clarify this topic.

When a plant flowers, no fruit forms until pollination (either self pollination or preferably cross pollination). Once pollination has occurred, fruit can begin to form. As the fruit forms, the flower will fall away. The spot where the flower was will become one end of the fruit, and it is called the blossom end. The stem end, of course, will be the end where the fruit remains connected to the plant. If the fruit is an apple, its weight and relationship to the tree branch will typically cause it to hang down from the branch, creating two ends that are truly “top” and “bottom.”

But with a fruit like a cantaloupe which sits on the ground, the vine will typically lie alongside of the fruit in such a way that the ends would be more logically described as being on the sides of the cantaloupe, rather on its top and its bottom. Still, the word “top” is sometimes used to refer to the stem end of a cantaloupe, and the word “bottom” is sometimes used to refer to the blossom end.

History

Historians aren’t certain about the exact origins of cantaloupe. The large number of melon family members (Cucumis melo) growing wild in Africa has led some investigators to place cantaloupe’s origins on that continent. But African melons may themselves have had ancestors in parts of Asia, including India or China.

Countries in the northernmost part of Africa lie along the south shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and cantaloupe was also enjoyed by people living in the Mediterranean and Middle East region fairly early on in its history. To this day, and on an annual basis, Turkey (3.5 billion pounds), Iran (2.9 billion pounds), and Egypt (2.4 billion pounds) remain major producers of cantaloupe. (The United States follows after Egypt with 2.2 billion pounds of production.) But in first place – and far ahead of these four countries – is China, a country that now produces half of the world’s melons (including cantaloupe) at a volume of nearly 25 billion pounds per year.

Attesting to the worldwide popularity of cantaloupe (and melons in general) is the practice of drying cantaloupe seeds for consumption as a snack food. This tradition can be seen in many parts of Central and South America, as well as in Asia and the Middle East.

Within the U.S., California is the largest cantaloupe-producing state and grows over half of all U.S. cantaloupe. Rounding out the top six cantaloupe-producing states are Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Indiana, and Texas.

Within California, the bulk of cantaloupe production occurs in one of two regions: the San Joaquin Valley of Central California and the Imperial Valley (in the more desert-like southeastern part of the state). In Imperial Valley, spring season melon planting can begin as early as January, allowing for harvest in May, and fall season planting can take place in July, allowing for harvest in October and November.

Despite its own robust cultivation of cantaloupe, the U.S. continues to import cantaloupe in large amounts. In 2010, the U.S. purchased over 425 million pounds of cantaloupe from Guatemala, nearly 300 million from Honduras, over 150 million from Costa Rica, and more than 60 million from Mexico.

How to Select and Store

The key to purchasing a good quality melon is to find one that is ripe, which is sometimes a challenge because oftentimes they are picked while still unripe in order to ensure that they make it through the shipping process undamaged. There are many clues that you can look for to find a melon that is ripe. The first is by simply picking it up and feeling its weight. Does it feel fuller and heavier than you would expect it to? If so, that’s a good thing, because it’s an indication of the cantaloupe’s ripeness.

Next, tap on the cantaloupe and listen to the sound it makes. If the sound is dull and also deep, that’s another indication that you’re holding a ripe cantaloupe. But if the sound is higher and hollow, your cantaloupe is probably not ripe.

If you press gently on the top of a ripe cantaloupe (the stem end, where the vine was attached) with your thumb, you should feel it give way very slightly. If that spot gives way substantially, to the point of feeling genuinely soft or even squishy, the cantaloupe is probably overripe. A quick check around different areas of the cantaloupe is also a good idea at this point so you can make sure that there is no bruising or damage.

The appearance of a ripe versus unripe cantaloupe is also different. The rind of a ripe cantaloupe (meaning the outermost layer beneath the netting) is typically going to be cream-colored or yellow or golden but not green or gray. The rind of an unripe cantaloupe is more likely to contain some green or gray. (Don’t rely too heavily on this ripeness indicator, however, since some varieties of cantaloupe have rinds that stay green or gray.)

Smelling the bottom of the cantaloupe (also called the blossom end, opposite from the stem end where the vine was attached) can also be helpful in determining its ripeness. Unripe cantaloupes are likely to have a very faint smell, or no smell at all. Ripe cantaloupes are likely to have that spectacular cantaloupe aroma—but not in an overpowering way. If the fragrance is overly strong, the cantaloupe may be overripe.

Once you’ve found a cantaloupe that gives every indication of being optimally ripe, your next decisions will involve storage. When you get home, place your optimally ripe cantaloupe immediately in the refrigerator, ideally in a crisper bin where there is usually slightly higher humidity. The temperature range of 36-41F (2.2-5C) is best for storing whole ripe cantaloupe. About three to four days is the maximum amount of time that you’ll want to store whole ripe cantaloupe under these refrigerator conditions. If you decide to purchase an unripe cantaloupe, it’s okay to leave it out at room temperature (non-refrigerated) for a couple of days to allow the texture of its flesh to become softer and juicier. However, it is very important to note that cantaloupe can be left at room temperature only if it is whole, intact, and not yet to the stage of full ripeness. Once the cantaloupe has reached its peak ripeness, refrigeration is mandatory. Regardless of whether a cantaloupe is ripe or unripe, it should not be washed as long as it remains whole and uncut. No matter how well you pat a cantaloupe dry after washing it, the surface of the cantaloupe will absorb moisture during washing and there will be added moisture on the surface of the cantaloupe. This added moisture will increase the likelihood of mold formation and decrease the cantaloupe’s shelf life. If you wait and wash your whole cantaloupe just prior to cutting, you’ll be consuming the cantaloupe and will therefore not have to worry about shelf life or risk of mold formation.

How to Enjoy

A Few Quick Serving Ideas

  • Add some sparkling water to fresh squeezed cantaloupe juice for a delightfully refreshing drink in the warm months of the year.
  • In a blender or food processor, purée cantaloupe and peeled soft peaches to make delicious cold soup. Add lemon juice and honey to taste.
  • Top cantaloupe slices with yogurt and chopped mint.
  • Slice melons in half horizontally, scoop out seeds and use each half as a basket in which to serve fruit salad.

For some of our favorite recipes, click Recipes.

Safety

Cantaloupe is not a commonly allergenic food, is not known to contain measurable amounts of oxalates or purines, and is also not included in the Environmental Working Group’s 2012 report “Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides” as one of the 12 foods most frequently containing pesticide residues. (In fact, in 2012, cantaloupe was listed as a “Clean 15” food that was lowest in pesticide residues among the fruits and vegetables studied.)

Nutritional Profile

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good or good source. Next to the nutrient name you will find the following information: the amount of the nutrient that is included in the noted serving of this food; the %Daily Value (DV) that that amount represents (similar to other information presented in the website, this DV is calculated for 25-50 year old healthy woman); the nutrient density rating; and, the food’s World’s Healthiest Foods Rating. Underneath the chart is a table that summarizes how the ratings were devised. Read detailed information on our Food and Recipe Rating System.

Cantaloupe
1.00 cup
160.00 grams
54.40 calories
Nutrient Amount DV
(%)
Nutrient
Density
World’s Healthiest
Foods Rating
vitamin A 5411.20 IU 108.2 35.8 excellent
vitamin C 58.72 mg 97.9 32.4 excellent
potassium 427.20 mg 12.2 4.0 very good
folate 33.60 mcg 8.4 2.8 good
vitamin B6 0.12 mg 6.0 2.0 good
vitamin B3 1.17 mg 5.8 1.9 good
fiber 1.34 g 5.4 1.8 good
vitamin K 4.00 mcg 5.0 1.7 good
magnesium 19.20 mg 4.8 1.6 good
vitamin B1 0.07 mg 4.7 1.5 good
World’s Healthiest
Foods Rating
Rule
excellent DV>=75% OR
Density>=7.6 AND DV>=10%
very good DV>=50% OR
Density>=3.4 AND DV>=5%
good DV>=25% OR
Density>=1.5 AND DV>=2.5%

References

  • Amaro AL, Beaulieu JC, Grimm CC et al. Effect of oxygen on aroma volatiles and quality of fresh-cut cantaloupe and honeydew melons. Food Chemistry, Volume 130, Issue 1, 1 January 2012, Pages 49-57.
  • Brat P, George S, Bellamy A et al. Daily Polyphenol Intake in France from Fruit and Vegetables. The Journal of Nutrition136. 9 (Sep 2006): 2368-73.
  • Daniel CR, Prabhakaran D, Kapur K et al. A cross-sectional investigation of regional patterns of diet and cardio-metabolic risk in India. Nutr J. 2011; 10: 12. Published online 2011 January 28. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-12.
  • de Melo, MLS, Narain N and Bora PS. Characterisation of some nutritional constituents of melon (Cucumis melo hybrid AF-522) seeds. Food Chemistry, Volume 68, Issue 4, March 2000, Pages 411-414.
  • Gonda I, Bar E, Portnoy V et al. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit. J Exp Bot. 2010 Feb;61(4):1111-23. Epub 2010 Jan 11.
  • Hu FB and Willett WC. Fruit and vegetable intakes, C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr, Dec 2006; 84: 1489 – 1497.
  • Ismail HI, Chan KW, Mariod AA et al. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of cantaloupe (cucumis melo) methanolic extracts. Food Chemistry, Volume 119, Issue 2, 15 March 2010, Pages 643-647.
  • Ismail M, Mariod A, Bagalkotkar G et al. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of Cantaloupe extracted by supercritical fluid extraction. Journal: Grasas y Aceites Year: 2010 Vol: 61 Issue: 1 Pages/record No.: 37-44.
  • Karakaya S, Kavas A, El NS et al. Nutritive value of a melon seed beverage.
  • Food Chemistry, Volume 52, Issue 2, 1995, Pages 139-141.
  • Kourkoutas D, Elmore JS and Mottram DS. Comparison of the volatile compositions and flavour properties of cantaloupe, Galia and honeydew muskmelons. Food Chemistry, Volume 97, Issue 1, July 2006, Pages 95-102
  • Laur LM and Tian L. Provitamin A and vitamin C contents in selected California-grown cantaloupe and honeydew melons and imported melons. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 24, Issue 2, March 2011, Pages 194-201.
  • Milind P and Kulwnt S. Musk melon is eat-must melon. Int Res J Pharm (IRJP) 2011, 2(8): 52-57.
  • Naito Y, Akagiri S, Uchiyama K et al. Reduction of diabetes-induced renal oxidative stress by a cantaloupe melon extract/gliadin biopolymers, oxykine, in mice. Biofactors. 2005;23(2):85-95.
  • Napier AB, Crosby KM and Park SO. Identifying Molecular Markers Correlating with High Beta-carotene Content in Muskmelon. HortScience, Jul 2006; 41: 1049.
  • Paris HS, Amar Z, and Lev E. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae). Ann Bot. 2012 Jul;110(1):23-33. Epub 2012 May 30.
  • Parmar HS and Kar A. Possible amelioration of atherogenic diet induced dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and hyperglycemia by the peel extracts of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris fruits in rats. Biofactors. 2008;33(1):13-24.
  • Sebastian P, Schaefer H, Telford IR et al. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (C. melo) have numerous wild relatives in Asia and Australia, and the sister species of melon is from Australia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 10;107(32):14269-73. Epub 2010 Jul 23.
  • Ukuku DO and Sapers GM. Effect of time before storage and storage temperature on survival of Salmonella inoculated on fresh-cut melons. Food Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 3, May 2007, Pages 288-295.
  • Vouldoukis I, Lacan D, Kamate C et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a Cucumis melo LC. extract rich in superoxide dismutase activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Sep;94(1):67-75.
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